Monday, March 16, 2020

Measuring quality in sport Essays

Measuring quality in sport Essays Measuring quality in sport Essay Measuring quality in sport Essay Using benchmarks within sports development is to measure the quality of an initiative or sports club. Benchmarking is a process that all clubs and initiatives have to follow to ensure they meet the correct requirements to achieve a benchmark. To get these benchmarks they must undergo Inspections and to have all data records looked upon to ensure they are covered In all kinds of insurances documents, safeguarding, and emergency procedures. Etc. National governing bodies and sports organizations such as Sport England and UK SPORT recognize these clubs that have achieved these benchmarks. Benchmarks are also used in comparisons with other sports clubs to produce a comparative and competitive source for which the standards of a club are compared to show people who are Interested In participating or know someone who does and want to Join a club fit for their needs. Quality Schemes are used to improve and continually are finding ways to improve the quality of customer service in the sports industry. Quality schemes are mostly aimed at leisure centre across the I-J that provide close contact will the general public. Sports Development organizations use self assessments or programmed to improve he qualities of sports clubs and sporting Initiatives. The assessment Is operated by a grading system that assesses; Timekeeping Workmanship Coaching Quality of Equipment Problem Solving Professionalism and Standards when the assessment takes place the club/lamentable have score boundaries they have for which whatever they are based on they fall Into that category which Is then published. The score boundaries are; Minimum 60% to be registered To achieve a higher category it has to be between 75% and 84% To achieve a excellent score they must score 85% and above So overall this measurement Is effect to show the quality of the club In making sure that the legal and formal parts of the club are at a high standard. The quality of a club is only shown if the club score 60% or more. Sport England Cellular A example of this is the Sport England Cellular. This cellular Is Issued one a club or leisure has passed the necessary procedure of approval. The cellular shows Sport England are in a way recommending this club that shows good standards and procedures within sport. The procedure of getting a cellular is set within guidelines for with an examiner will come in and ensure the club has all the accessory paperwork, safety procedures/action plans to ensure the participants are safe at all times. The criteria of the procedure is filled in and then a copy of certificates, policies and qualifications. The criteria is checked every 2 years to ensure the standards are met and that none of the paperwork used as evidence is not out- dated, if it is then the club must go about replacing them. In conclusion this type of assessment is quite effective due to marketing and advertising the cellular to show that the club is at a high standard. More so with participants who are edging towards the higher end of the sports development momentum, as parents will be looking for sports club that meets all of the desired targets that the parent may seem fit for their child to develop. Internal and Self-Assessment This is another procedure to measure quality in sport. Self-assessment is a evaluation provided of your own performance. Sports clubs and initiatives do this measure as their own clubs strengths and weaknesses. And the potential of the opportunities or threats they face. Sports clubs can then create a Development plan to fix the areas of development, and improve on their strengths. Self-assessing will alp initiatives and organizations set goals to improve their current results of assessment. Internal assessment means you can identify your successes and a areas of development and internally within your club can provide plans to improve the level of quality to a long term look and potential progress. A example of this is doing a SOOT Analysis to seek your strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This is a form of self-assessing and is used to evaluate current states and where the club is and how they can improve. Opportunities are the result of the strengths when having strength only positive outcomes can be achieved. Threats are the results of the weakness and are the negative outcomes. When using a soot analysis to be able to make goals to improve the quality and be able to progress forward the club must be able to make realistic targets that will be measurable and fit the specific needs for the club and its members. This is used by seeking the weaknesses and areas for development and producing a development plan to set the targets and goals for expand the club. This is a very effective way in improving the quality of sports clubs and initiatives. This because it is easy to show the strengths and weaknesses and show that in the rent state the opportunities from the strengths and the threats the sporting club/ initiative may face if they do not improve. When evaluating from the results of a SOOT Analysis a development plan must be created to work on the areas of development and how to improve or better the strengths. This is a on-going procedure which in time will improve the quality of a sports club. Comprehensive Performance Assessment (C. P. A) CPA is an example of internal assessment. After a sports club have completed a SOOT analysis a sports organization will produce a CPA to put a rating the level of quality within the sports club. This is produced by a combination off sports clubs development plan. After a sports club have completed a SOOT analysis, a sports organization for example Sport England would then provide a CPA. The Spas objective is to put a value on the level of quality of a sports club. This is produced by a combination of a sports clubs action which is identified by a self assessment like a soot analysis. A plan is made with the potential quality and actual quality. Potential Quality is how good the quality of a sports club could be depending on what comes out of the development plan. Actual Potential is where a sports club is at this state eight now, which also depends on the Development plan. Different sports clubs have different levels of quality, for example some may have high quality in some areas that another sports club might not. In conclusion this type of assessment is quite effective if followed correctly and depending on if a clubs development plan is strong enough to work off. Ensuring that the goals the club are realistic and able to achieve, also the club has passed the following stages of a development plan they should be at better state for which they will achieve a better success rate and potentially more customers.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

About Chloroform As An Anaesthetic Agent

About Chloroform As An Anaesthetic Agent Surgical procedures are painful, no doubt. Even with the advancement of medicine in the field of anaesthetic, certain complications are to be expected among patients who were receiving anaesthesia (regardless of types) such as bradycardia, post-puncture headache, hypotension and feeling pain despite an adequate dose of analgesia. How do we know exactly whether the patient who is being operated is in pain? Most of the indications were clinical (there is no machine which can tell you with an absolute certainty that the patient is in paint) and often judged based on the patients vital signs which can be quite suggestive of pain, for example, increase in blood pressure and heartbeat could indicate that the amount of analgesia being given to the patient was inadequate. Eventually, an anaesthetist in-charge will increase the analgesics/any other drugs dosage to achieve stabilisation which will provide a less painful experience for the patient. Being sedated during surgery is the main principle of anaesthesia (although some procedures dont require sedation; local anaesthetic for example) coupled with other agents which could alleviate pain and reduce movement to provide surgeons with optimal surgical conditions thus reducing post-operative complications. There are a lot of fine arteries, veins and nearby organs that can potentially be damaged during operation if patients were moving thus usage of muscle relaxants (either depolarising or non-depolarising) are justified to facilitate certain procedures. Even though nowadays, there are a lot of chemicals which can be used as anaesthetic agents, back in the day, the number of options to alleviate pain is quite limited. In 2250 BCE, most of the toothache cases experienced by Babylonians were treated by giving Henbane, a type of plant which is quite poisonous, often being used to treat some medical conditions such as asthma, cough, nervous system-related diseases and sure, a toot hache. If you were thinking, sedation before operative procedures are only practised after we discovered modern medicine, you were wrong. In 650 BCE, most of the priestesses utilise ethylene fumes to induce sedation among patients before any kind of procedure. In 400 BCE, Assyrians discovered that they can induce unconsciousness temporarily by compressing the carotid artery to carry out a few simple surgical procedures such as cataract surgery and circumcision without too much fuss. In the year 160, Hua Tuo performed surgery after patients have been induced with a method resembles the general anaesthesia by utilising a mixture of wine and herbs called Mafeisan. People generally understand the importance of putting patients in an unconscious state before starting an operation but as there were a lot of complications (including death) which have been documented in a lot of journals associated with certain types of anaesthetic agents, people grew restless. There are a lot of modern anaesthetic agents which are not being used anymore due to their fatal complications but people in the past dont have much choices on that matter, really. In this article, we will discuss regarding one of the anaesthetic agents which have been held in high regards in the past after it was used to ease up Queen Victoria, during her childbirth. Lets talk about @chloroform. Exploring A 170 Years Of Controversy Even though chloroform was discovered by three independent researchers in 1831, people are not aware of its anaesthetic properties until it was eventually demonstrated in 1847 by a Scottish obstetrician named Professor James Simpson. He tried to search for an ideal anaesthetic chemical that can be used to anaesthetise patients during operation while imposing minimal side effects (pain, for most of the parts). His determination stemmed from his bad experience of witnessing a breast-removal operation that was carried out in 1827 when he was a medical student. Back then, reliable anaesthetic agents were yet to be discovered thus surgical procedures were usually carried out with speed and precision to reduce patients suffering. Feeling pain was considered inevitable so patients depend heavily on surgeons skills while they were held down by devices to prevent movements. Throughout the surgery, Simpson felt traumatised as he had to witness suffering from the patient as surgical cuts were made. Her movements were restricted by both leather straps and a few other attendants, so it was pretty much messed up gores that had to be dealt with as soon as they were able. Its not a sight that you would have admired or cherished and he nearly quitted medical school because of that; fortunately, he didnt. Instead of quitting, he pledged himself to find a suitable anaesthetic agent that could alleviate suffering among patients especially in a surgical setting. Most of the answers he acquired from his professors when he was a medical student were discouraging and only when he was a full-pledged medical officer that he could experiment with a number of chemicals and procedures to test their efficacies on his patients; he ever tried mesmerism! People often used the word mesmerism and hypnosis interchangeably, but both of them induced trance (an altered state of consciousness) through different methods. Mesmerism focused on using non-verbal cues like gaze, strokes etc. while hypnotism used verbal cues. Of course, mesmerism is not a good choice when it comes to medicine, even its founder, Franz Anton Mesmer was chased out from Venice for practising it, but Simpson was willing to try anything for the sake of improving the current state of surgical protocols; still, none of it works. In 1846 he heard about a chemical called ether which can be used as an inhaled agent to alleviate pain during dental procedures. He tried to use it in his medical practice but he soon realised that there are a lot of side effects caused by that particular volatile agent, not to mention back then, a huge portion of the medical community opposed to the usage of volatile agents as anaesthesia. Despite the frustration, he learned a considerable amount of experience and knowledge regarding volatile compounds. Exposure to all kind of volatile compounds brought him to chloroform in 1847, a year after his failed attempt at using ether as an anaesthetic agent. Mind you, volatile compound is a hot topic since the discovery of chloroform in 1831, but their potential benefits were regarded less than what they deserved. On November 1847, he revealed chloroform as a potential anaesthetic agent that can be used to induce patient pre-operatively. His discovery is so significant to the point that he was credited for discovering it and responsible for saving Queen Victoria during her childbirth from suffering; neither of which is true. According to the history press, although Simpsons works after the discovery of chloroform can be thought as significant or probably greater than chloroform, it received less attention by the medical community and public alike; everyone wanted to celebrate or hate him for the discovery of chloroform; so unfortunate. He recognised the fact that chloroform is a powerful agent that can be used to sedate people during surgery and at the same time, took lives if the dosage applied to an individual were excessive. There were a lot of debates, quarrels and confusion regarding the usage of such agent which requires a careful consideration of patients condition which can ultimately cause death if it was to be miscalculated. It is, however, worth noting that, the usage of chloroform has revolutionised battlefield medicine due to its quick onset of action, ease of use and high rate of success which has been documented on numerous occasions during wars. In the war in the Crimea, the British used chloroform almost universally in their operations; the French also exhibited it very extensively, and Baudens, one of their leading military surgical authorities, declares that they did not meet with one fatal accident from it, although it was given to them during the Eastern campaign, thirty thousand times at least. In America, however, chloroform was only recognised as one of the most effective anaesthetic agents after a civil war in 1861 thus being used by physicians for routine surgeries. It was kinda appropriate to start using such inhaled agent after it was documented in the records regarding the use of chloroform as a preferred agent to treat 80,000 people (through surgical methods) without too much fuss; they either used chloroform alone or mixed it up with ether to enhance its therapeutic effects. Even though the success rate seems high, there were a lot of deaths that have been documented as a part of the consequences caused by chloroform, starting with a child in 1848, a year after Simpson started using it as a preferred anaesthetic agent. Miscalculation or overextending the exposure of such chemical to patients can cause cardiac arrest and thus death within 2 minutes. When Simpson first discovered the anaesthetic property of chloroform, he tried it on himself, putting him in a deep sl eep. Fortunately, he woke up the day after or the world will be deprived of such anaesthetic agent a few decades after his announcement. Chloroform In Criminal-Related Activities I think people are quite familiar with the idea of chloroform being used by criminals to induce their victims into an unconscious state so that they can be abducted or killed with ease. Even though this idea is quite popular, most of the papers out there seem to agree with the fact that applying chloroform to a handkerchief and such is considered a poor tool to be used in abductions and any related crimes that are required unconsciousness of non-consenting individuals. There are a few cases that can be given as evidence but most of the popular press seems to hate if this fact proved wrong; they still believe that in any criminal activity which used chloroform, the chemical itself is the reason for people to be unconscious. Well, the method of inducing victims seem to resemble the act of inducing patients before an operation but there are a lot of factors that can be considered before saying chloroform is the root of all evils. In 1850, an elderly clergyman stayed in Temperance Hotel located in Kendal, Cumbria, England. He was on a mission of collecting donation for the needy and successfully collected eleven gold sovereigns which are considered a lot. Unfortunately for him, a young man who travelled alongside him planned to steal those sovereigns so he soaked a towel with some chloroform and hid inside a closet while the clergyman was busy doing something else. When the clergyman about to go to sleep, he tried to lock the door by using a chair since the lock is broken and a few seconds after, the young man attacked him while covering his face with the towel, attempted to knock him down. It will be easier for him to hit the clergymans head rather than using chloroform, the clergyman scream and fight violently and the other guests from other rooms came to see what happen. The young man was arrested and he was sentenced to 18 months of jail time. There are many cases which resemble this one but none of it was accepted as the truth by the public presses in 1865. People wanted to hear that chloroform can actually be used to commit crimes. In 1854, an ophthalmic surgeon named William Wilde began treating Mary Travers for a few years until later in 1862, she claimed, allegedly, that she was raped under the influence of chloroform by the surgeon himself. The thing that was interesting regarding this case is, although she claimed that she was raped in 1862, the report which was written by her to the presses was submitted in 1864 when William Wilde was awarded a knighthood for his contribution in Irish census. She was treated by him for those 2 years and this accusation seems suspicious. Moving on, William Wildes wife submitted a letter to Mary Travers whos at the time working as a professor of medical philosophy in Dublin. When Mary Travers found out about this, she sued Lady Wilde for defamation. Mary Travers won that case but the penalty imposed on William Wilde was so low that it wouldnt affect his reputation at all. People started to become suspicious as to why this was the case. This case was then discussed by two jo urnalists which favoured Sir William Wilde and they were sued for defamation by Mary Travers too; only this time, she lost. There are a few possibilities that could have influenced Mary Travers as of why she behaved that way. The rape accusation might be alleged but when we are talking about the truth, Mary Travers might have spoken it, I mean the truth; only it never happened in the first place. A lot of this kind of accusations have been received throughout the years and some research which are conducted much later proved that chloroform can induce sexual hallucination. This effect, however, is not specific to chloroform but also the other inhaled anaesthetic agents. Apart from making you happy, it can strengthen sexual emotions which lead to hallucinations that can be considered erotic. In 1888, a paper written by Buxton DW described a case whereby a patient achieved sexual orgasm during induction with an inhaled anaesthetic agent. Quite interesting, isnt it? Oh yeah, chloroform also is quite addictive. There is some documentation (quite old) which described patients who are addicted to inhaled anaesth etic agents to improve sexual performances. Conclusion Even though chloroform was proven to be a great anaesthetic agent in the past, it was replaced by much better gases that would be able to maintain unconsciousness with fewer side effects. If someone said they were being raped under the influence of chloroform, that case needs to be investigated first. Even though chloroform is a poor tool to be used by a criminal, people can be knocked out by it; they just need to be still for a few minutes as the concentration of the chloroform used might have been mild than what have been calibrated for surgical uses.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Human Resource Planning Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Human Resource Planning - Assignment Example Restlessness in the sense that human capital has become more aware of their freedoms and rights and is not ready to settle for any thing less than justice for services rendered. This has placed new challenges to organizations plans on human resource and necessitated more research in the area so as to offer fresh solutions for the emerging challenges. It can be argued that the realization of any organizational plans depends on the kind of human resource in the organization. Poor human resource planning has led to organizations having a work force which can not deliver often making organizations spend so much in remunerations at the expense of profits. This has led to the closure of companies which causes a myriad of other related problems such as loss of jobs and revenues to governments. Just how important and relevant is human resource planning important for organizations Does human resource planning affect the performance of an organization Does proper human resource planning contribute to the success of organizational planning process Is human resource planning a prerequisite for organizational planning The purpose of this study is to evaluate the importance of human resource planning in organizational planning process. The study will seek to find out how lack of human resource planning can affect organizations. It will further seek to establish bottlenecks in human resource planning. Human capital... iii) To identify challenges faced in human resource planning. iv) To establish the contributions of human resource planning to organizationalplanning process. Research question. What is the importance of human resource planning in organizational planning process Significance of the study.Human capital is the most treasured asset of any organization. It interlinks all departments while ensuring coherence and oneness of purpose therefore contributing to an organizational failure or success. As the adage goes failing to plan to is planning to fail therefore there is no alternative to this issue, organizations must properly plan their human resource. Of signifance to this study are governments, private institutions and virtually every organization which is interested in improving its processes The study will become a vehicle for organizational planners who will be able to appreciate the role of human resource planning. To the planers, the study will provide a framework which will act as a guide in the implementation of changes. This is of significance since it is not uncommon for organizations to rush in to recruitment of staff without a prior evaluation of the organizations needs. The following assumptions will guide the study. i) Human resource managers will be cooperative and provide reliable responses. ii) There exists a gap in the knowledge of the importance of the human resource planning in organizational planning process. iii) There are possibilities for raising the level of awareness in organizations for the role played by human resource planning. Delimitations. The proposed study will confine itself to interviewing human resource managers

Saturday, February 1, 2020

The Security payment in E- commerce Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The Security payment in E- commerce - Essay Example Internet can be considered as one of the most revolutionary inventions of the last century [2]. It is used by different people for different reasons; some people use it to communicate with the other end of the world, some use it to increase their knowledge with the vast information available online [1]. Another area that has made a prominent name in the World Wide Web is E-commerce. E-commerce, which is the process of business transactions on the web; is preferred for its simplicity and ease [3]. However, one of the factors that cause a great degree of concern for customers and merchants is the level of security involved with these business transactions [4], [15]. The mode of payment in e-commerce transactions is through ‘credit cards’; which have established more opportunities for businessmen but at the same time introduced new problems in the whole process of selling goods. The fear of fraud in online business transactions keeps on increasing every year due to the increase in the respective crime [8], [39], [40]. According to National Consumers League statistics for the year 2007; millions of dollars were lost in e-shopping transactions and have exposed the weakness of the credit card payment system [5]. Credit card fraud and identity theft [11] are the two most prevalent security risks. In the past, many efforts have been done to secure online transactions and make this medium a trusting one. During such efforts, the protocol of Secure Electronic Transactions (SET) was developed to secure credit card information from several kinds of attacks present online [6]. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) also helps in providing a secure environment as it provides an encrypted medium to transfer credit card information [7]. The use of biometric has also been proposed by one of the researchers; this proved helpful to prevent identity theft and any false authorization regarding the credit card information. Numerous aspects have to be considered

Friday, January 24, 2020

1950-1960 Essay -- Essays Papers

1950-1960 During the 1950's, the United States experienced great change with the end of World War II, making it difficult to label the busy decade. America was the most powerful nation in the world and it was a time of complacency. The United States accepted two new states, Hawaii and Alaska ( The science world boomed with new inventions; televisions broadcast nationally; rock n' roll was popular; commercial hotel and fast food chains became common; the car industry exploded; vaccinations for measles and polio were discovered; and birth control pills were introduced (Layman VII). Another event in the 1950’s was the ratification of the 21st Amendment, which limited presidents to two terms in office. The 1950's "baby boom" was also an affect from World War II. The American population increased 19% throughout the 1950's. One-third of Americans was under the age of fifteen (Layman 262). Another issue for the United States in 1950 was the Civil Rights movement. There was one court case that changed history forever. On May 17, 1954 in Topeka, Kansas, a black third grade girl, Linda Brown, was denied admission to a school that was for white children. Schools stigmatized black children, thereby denying them the equal protection guaranteed by the 14th Amendment. The court finally agreed with Linda’s father and Thurgood Marshall. The United Sates was modernizing, however, discrimination was still a large problem ( If American was a growing society, it was also a society on the move. Life was progressively getting faster. Drive-in business and shopping malls were convenient. Mass culture brought material wealth to America, but many wondered at what cost. Poorer citizens were ignored, and the work et... ...ed States was once again beginning to modernize and grow. This not only affected American attitude, but it affected art and literature throughout the world. WORKS CITED Berman, David. "Pop Art: An analysis of English and American Styles." ( Candace. "Index Fifties Web". March 15, 2001 ( Ginsberg, Allen. "America." The American Tradition in Literature. Vol. 2. Ed. Perkins, George and Barbara. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999. 1795. Hughes, Langston. "Feet Live Their Own Life." The American Tradition in Literature. Ed. Perkins, George and Barbara. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999. 1604. IDA (15) University of Dayton Annual Reports. "Annual Reports of the President 1950." Layman, Richard. American Decades: 1950-1959. Detroit: Gale, 1994. Wehrle, William O. A History of the University of Dayton. Dayton, 1962.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Nursing Reflection

Going back through previous experiences and tracing back the footsteps we have made allows us to reminisce about the good things that have happened in our lives. Somehow the undesirable memories would also seep in as they are part and parcel of our existence that we cannot do away with. This process gives us an opportunity to encounter past events that can necessarily aid us in the future. In the Nursing practice, reflection is a retrospective approach that evaluates historical processing of experiences that takes place in a structured form and is deemed highly essential (Eliis, Kenworthy and Gates, 2003, 156). In the clinical practice, this retrospective activity facilitates in the promotion of quality care. The art of reflection however in the nursing practice focus on self rather than on the situation as the care provider (Quinn, 2000, 252). The process is a reflective practice that is a cognitive act by which we are allowed to make sense of our thoughts and memories (Taylor, 2000, 43). This method therefore allows a practitioner to generate a complementary or alternative form of knowledge and a set of choices in the evaluation of the best course of action. It is a â€Å"deep learning† experience that reflects on our knowledge and theories and go beyond merely thinking about what we do but involves recalling what had occurred and analyzing the situation by interpreting important information recalled (Taylor, 2000, 4). In Nursing, the reflective process is aimed about our own practice (Taylor, 20000, 3); that nursing education and research cannot do without as a common practice in the learning mechanism in which we all engage in a regular basis (Slevin and Basford, 2000, 483). With a main purpose of enabling the practitioner to learn from experiences and increase clinical effectiveness, reflection is highly essential to the nursing practice. For this process to be effective, Johns has provided a guided reflection which employs different models of self-inquiry to enable a practitioner to realize desirable and effective practice (2002:3). Considering that this involves a cognitive and emotional component that is expressed through analysis, different models would aid us feel comfortable about the activity. John’s model can be used in preparation for or during clinical supervision and applicable to specific incidents rather than more general day to day issues and particularly applicable to those who prefer a structure approach (Ellis, Kenworthy and Gates, 155). Gibbs Model use term description rather than â€Å"a return to the entire experience† as a form of reflection is considered as a simpler method but one where a mentor or facilitator is likely needed(Davies, Bullman and Finlay, 2000, 84). Both models however in supervision practice can be used to facilitate clinical governance through the promotion of quality care where an exchange between two professionals employing this technique seeks to improve their practice (Watkins, Edwards and Gastrell, 2003, 266). To maximize the potential benefits of clinical supervision, nurses have to learn to be comfortable with this retrospective activity with the aid of Gibbs or John’s models depending on where one feels most comfortable working with (Ellis, Kenworthy and Gates, 156). Gibbs Model for reflection As a simple and easily attainable method, Gibbs model uses term description rather than a return to a previous experience (Davies, Bullman and Finlay, 84). In psychology and teaching, reflection facilitates as purposeful change and competencies such as psychological-mindedness and self-regulation (Clutterback and Lane, 2004, 196). Usually this process involves a mentor, teacher or supervisor working with a student at different stage while allowing for individuality. Although less specific than re-evaluating an experience; Gibbs in his cycle or reflection makes the action planning a more overt component of reflection (Davies, Bullman and Finlay, 84). Gibbs provides that in one’s own practice, an essential aspect of working as an autonomous practitioner involves a critical analysis of one’s role and responsibilities from a personal perspective (Gibbs, 1998,13). It is a process that requires others to become involved that encourages feedback and constructive comment to recognize your role and value in a health team (Humphris and Masterson, 2000, 77). John’s Model for reflection John’s model uses the concept of guided reflection to describe a structure supportive approach that helps the practitioner learn from their reflections and experiences (Quinn, 2000, 572). The approach involves the use of a model of structure reflection, one-on-one group supervision and the keeping of a reflective diary (Quinn, 572). The practice would aid the practitioner in learning from a reflection of their experiences. John’s model is more detailed as it provides a checklist of specific points necessary for reflection (Davies, Bullman and Finlay, 85). The only problem cited with John’s model if it imposes on a framework that is external to the practitioner leaving little scope for inclusion as cite by other theories. John’s model can be used in preparation and during clinical supervision consisting of 6 steps that is applicable t specific incidents rather than more generalized day to day issues facing the supervisee (Ellis, Kenworthy and Gates, 155). This model is highly attractive to those who prefer a structured approach but others may find this type more restricting (Ellis, Kenworthy and Gates, 156). Criticisms against the reflective process Reflection involves cognitive and emotional components that are expressed through analysis and to maximize the potential benefits of the clinical supervisor nurses have to learn to feel comfortable with this retrospective activity both during and in preparation for supervision sessions (Ellis, Kenworth and Gates, 157). This could be deemed time–consuming in an institution where time is often an important element in the delivery of care. A time for reflection can be done positively only when a situation or a need arises. This is probably why reflection method is considered a radical approach to nursing education and practice given the ample time training can afford (Slevin and Basford, 483). Yet reflection is valuable if done in partnership with someone else which led Davies et al to believe that the approach is quasi-therapeutic (Davies, Bullman and Finlay, 86). The principles have been transferred directly from client-centered psychotherapy and may trigger more powerful responses such as guilt and anxiety. Practitioners are therefore evaluated before they are given a chance to try this one out according to conservative studies. However with practice, it is assumed that a reflective process may not hold as much negative impact for the learned practitioner in an answer to the demands for a continuous review of a practice in a critical and analytical manner that support the reflective concept. The Value of Reflection for the Student Nurse As an essential component of scholarly practice, reflection, reflection is a method for generating a complementary alternative form of knowledge and theory (Humphris and Masterson, 2000:78).   Regardless of any negative criticism a reflective method may elicit from critics, I consider this to be a valuable tool. For the student, this is a process were one internally examines and explores an issue of concern triggered by an experience that clarifies the meaning of perspectives (Canham and Bennett, 2001, 185). The nursing practice has been surrounded by a world of silence and reflection is a way for nurses to reflect that is enhanced and introduced in the nursing curriculum (Guzzetta, 1998, 102). Often in the professional practice, nurses have encouraged silence among themselves in their health environment and setting while usually developing a shared professional voice with her team. Oftentimes, her relationship with the rest of the health team and other professionals faced difficult efforts because of the autonomy. The process of reflection allows one to air out her sentiments and ideas within her group or to a mentor or a supervisor during moments of reflection that could be produced as a shared voice for the team. Developing a habit of reflection is therefore a must for nursing education in order to uncover dimensions of experiences such as hidden and explicit meanings of behavior that can aid a student nurse in identifying her own perspective of the nursing practice that is highly useful in her entry to the profession (Guzzetta, 1998, 103). For a student in nursing, one must therefore develop a habit of reflection in order to uncover experiences and the meaning of behavior, values and thoughts that could readily prepare one for professional practice. It should be noted that the reflective process can helpfully aid in teamwork where one has the chance to relay sentiments after reflection of her past experience.Nursing education must therefore develop and evaluate innovative strategies to prepare nurses to meet the challenges of the rapidly changing health care system and for lifelong learning (Johns and Freshwater, 1998, 149). Reflection and reflective practice are currently receiving attention as a strategy yet little is known about the process of becoming a reflective thinker, how to teach skills needed for reflection, or the barriers and facilitators to becoming a reflective practitioner (Clutterback and Lane, 2004, 198). However a reflection process is worthy of study and practice that should initially be started and adapted as a core training for everyone wishing to professionally practice nursing as a positive way to analyze the development of reflective practice abilities. Bibliography Canham, Judith and Bennett, JoAnne, 2001, Mentoring in Community Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities, Blackwell, London, 2001. Clutterback, David and Lane,Gill, 2004, The Situational Mentor: An International Review of Competencies and Capabilities in Mentoring, GowerHouse, London. Davies, Celia, Bullman, Anne and Finlay, Linda, 2000, Changing Practice in Health and Social Care, Sage, London. Ellis, Roger, Kenworthy, Neil and Gates, Bob, 2003, Interpersonal Communication in Nursing: Theory and Practice, Elsevier Sciences, Orlando. Gibbs, Graham, 1998, Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods, Oxford, London. Guzzetta, Cathie, 1998,Essential Readings in Holistic Nursing, Jones Bartlett, Maryland. Humphris, Debra and Masterson, Abigail Masterson, 2000, Developing New Clinical Roles: A Guide for Health Professionals, Elsevier, Florida. Johns, Christopher, 2002, Guided Reflection: Research in Practice, Blackwell Publishing, Perth. Johns, Christopher and Freshwater, Dawn, 1998, Transforming Nursing Through Reflective Practice. Blackwell, Perth. Quinn,   Ã‚  Francis M. 2000, The Principles and Practice of Nurse Education, 4rth ed., Nelson Thorne, London. Slevin, Oliver and Basford, Lynn, 2003, Theory and Practice of Nursing: An Integrated Approach to Caring Practice, Nelson Thomas, London. Taylor Beverly, 2000, Reflective Practice: A guide for Nurses and Midwives, Allen and Unwin, St. Leonard. Watkins, Dianne, Edwards, Judy and Gastrell,Pam, 2003, Community Health Nursing: Frameworks for Practice, Elsevier Sciences, Orlando.            

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Standardized Testing in Saudi Arabia - 1435 Words

Integrity is a small word, but it has a big meaning. Integrity means that you are ready and able to do whatever is right regardless of the situation that you are facing (Utpalendu 3). It is a simple term which states that people should do and act according to their ethics and their minds, not to their sentiments. For example, if a situation arises that involves your family, or the one you love, you are able to face the situation with honesty and truth. This is the essence of integrity. Also, integrity is uniquely related to justice. If you have integrity, you are likely to also be equitable, which is an often missed characteristic in many people. Justice is absent in many places of the world. Unfortunately, there are only a few people who†¦show more content†¦Therefore, their creativity is minimized. For example, if a student who excels in engineering is placed in a hospital, he or she is not going to be successful because this is not his or her field. The same principle app lies when a student who is good in philosophy is required to take a math exam; he or she will not be able to validate the exam like the student who is good in math, and this is unfair. It is unfair to judge a student’s knowledge via one exam that doesn’t take more than three hours (Sharq 1). Time is also a problem on this test. Students are required to answer 150 questions in two hours and a half (Sharq 1). At this rate, it is nearly impossible to answer all the questions. Even students who are proficient in solving math problems have difficultly answering all of the questions. In fact, these questions were given to math teachers, and they could not answer them all. Therefore, how are students supposed to do the same? Some students who were more intelligent attempted to answer the questions as best they could so they could attend a university, but they failed. However, others answered the questions randomly, and in the end, they succeeded purely on luck. How could this be fair? Some people argue that this standardized test has brought equality to education. On the other hand, other people state that the test does not consider individual differences between people. Financial exploitation is another issue that people see in this test. Students are requiredShow MoreRelatedThe Use Of Online Banking Vs Traditional Bank Essay930 Words   |  4 PagesStudy design: According to the above, the research is compared the use of online banking VS traditional bank, since many people in Saudi Arabia are not aware of the advantages of electronic banking, which it should not be as a problem in these days. The purpose of this study is to study and analysis the impediments of using online services which include: automated teller machine (ATM), internet banking, and tele-banking and then compare it with manual banking. 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One of the main